Sales System in English

Sales System

When finished making our worksheet to complete the last cycle of accounting financial statements consist of:

1. Income Statement => Reports that provide information about the sale, the price of goods sold, operating expenses, other income and other costs coupled to mengetajui profit or loss.

  1.  Statement of Changes in Equity => Reports menyajikann information regarding the final capital acquired at a certain period.
  2.  Balance => Reports that provide information about assets, debts and capital in the next period.
  3.  Consolidated cash flow => The report presents information on the cash received and spent during this period and also to know the ending cash balance
  4.  CALK => notes that provide more detailed information on the financial statements.


Apart from the purchase, the accounting cycle there is also a sales transaction. Where the sale in question was selling merchandise to customers, either by cash or credit. The process of selling merchandise on credit that occurred in the company starting from the supply of goods by letter of supply that is made by the sales and the invoice is sent to prospective customers. After receiving the response from prospective customers, that he wanted to make sales on credit then the sales request approval to the loan approval after approval from the sale of a letter ordering goods to be sent to the gudan gdan parts warehouse will prepare the goods, count, put the slip of goods and fill in the card stock, after all the items that had been prepared and sent to the delivery of goods, after the goods are received by the reception barag prepare goods, travel permit, proof of receipt of goods to be shipped to the customer and BPB must be authorized by the customer as proof of registration by the receivables.
And if the sale in cash, if customers want to buy the merchandise after receiving the goods then the customer directly paying by cash or check from the bank.

From the sales process that has been described above, we can conclude that the evidence of transactions that are used in sales transactions of goods trade is

  1.  Memorandum of cash => Memorandum which is used as evidence of sales transactions conducted in cash.
  2.  Invoice copy => evidence used to make sales on credit.
  3.  Receipt => proof of payment transaction receipt of money for something.
  4. Credit memorandum copy => evidence used to reduce the amount receivable for goods received by the customer damaged or not in accordance with the orders.
  5.  Check => as evidence provided by the customer for payment of the purchase in cash.

Upon receipt of evidence of such transactions, the accounting cycle is usually recorded in a journal. Recording sales of merchandise there are 2 methods:

1. Physical Methods
2. Perpetual method

Physical Methods
• sales by cash => cash receipts journal
Cash                              xxx
Sales                                       xxx

• Credit Sales => sales journal
Accounts receivable               xxx
Sales                              xxx

• Sales Returns (returns for damaged / defective) => general journals
Sales returns                          xxx
Accounts receivable               xxx

• Sales discounts (if at the time of payment not yet due under the terms of payment it will get a discount) => cash receipts journal
Cash                              xxx
Sales discounts              xxx
Receivable                              xxx

Perpetual method

• sales by cash => cash receipts journal
Cash xxx
Sales xxx
* Cost of sales xxx
Xxx merchandise
• Credit Sales => sales journal
Accounts receivable xxx
Sales xxx
Cost of goods sold xxx
Xxx merchandise
• Return of sales => general journals
Sales returns xxx
Accounts receivable xxx
Xxx merchandise
Cost of goods sold xxx
• Pieces of sales => cash receipts journal
Cash xxx
Sales discounts xxx
Receivable xxx

Special marked * are recorded in general ledger

Once recorded into the journal and then all the accounts posted to the ledger. And special for accounts receivable after posting into the ledger are also posted to the ledger accounts to provide a more detailed description.

Furthermore, the accounts are summarized into a balance sheet that shows position of assets, debts and capital of the company at a certain period. For sales transactions, which uses the perpetual method, merchandise inventories do not require adjustment because the journal has described the condition of the real stock trading.
Whereas if the sales transaction using periodic method, merchandise inventories require adjustment because the journal did not reflect the condition of ending inventory actual position.
Paragraph journals necessary adjustments to merchandise inventory using periodic method is:
Income summary                      xxx
Merchandise Inventory                    xxx
Merchandise inventory            xxx
Income summary                     xxx

After making adjustments journal then posted to the general ledger on each account. Then to make it easier the preparation of financial statements should we make a work sheet. From the work sheet it will show profit or loss suffered by the company. So it is easy to prepare financial statements.

The financial reports were very useful for owners, investors, managers, board of directors, creditors, employees, goverment and users of financial statements.

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